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分心,生产力最大敌人

When it comes to productivity, distractions can be a big problem. With so many different distractions in today’s world, staying focused on the task at hand can be difficult. When we switch between tasks, we lose up to 40% of our productive time because our brains have to adjust and refocus.[1] On average, distractions result in daily time losses of 2.1 hours.

说到生产力,分心可能是个大问题。当今世界有这么多不同的干扰,集中精力完成手头的任务可能会很困难。当我们在不同任务之间切换时,我们会失去高达40% 的效率时间,因为我们的大脑必须调整和重新集中注意力。[1]平均而言,分心会导致每天损失2.1小时的时间。

Some distractions are obvious, while others are subtler and more difficult to detect and manage. For instance, the majority of you are aware that our phones’ or computers’ notifications are a constant source of distraction, but are you also aware of how your stress or anxious thoughts affect your ability to concentrate?

有些干扰是显而易见的,而另一些则更微妙,更难以发现和管理。例如,你们中的大多数人都意识到我们的手机或电脑的通知是分散注意力的源头,但是你们是否也意识到你们的压力或焦虑的想法是如何影响你们集中注意力的能力的呢?

This article will teach you everything you need to know about distractions so that you can overcome them and increase your productivity.

这篇文章将告诉你所有你需要知道的关于分心的事情,这样你就可以克服它们并提高你的工作效率。

What Are Distractions in a Nutshell?

简而言之,什么是分心?

In a nutshell, anything that diverts our attention from the task we are currently working on is a distraction.

简而言之,任何把我们的注意力从我们目前正在做的事情上转移开的事情都是一种分心。

As defined in Merriam Webster Dictionary, “distraction” is:[2]

正如《韦氏词典》中所定义的那样,“分心”是: [2]

Something that distracts : an object that directs one’s attention away from something else

分散注意力的事物: 把人的注意力从别的事物上引开的事物

Distractions can take many different forms. Among the most common distractions are:

分心可以有很多种形式,最常见的分心形式有:

  • Electronic device notifications: Constantly receiving alerts from computers, smartphones, and other devices can be very distracting.
  • 电子设备通知: 不断收到来自电脑、智能手机和其他设备的通知可能会让人分心。
  • Social media: Using social media incessantly can be a major source of distraction.
  • 社交媒体: 不断地使用社交媒体可能是分散注意力的主要来源。
  • Email: Reading and responding to emails, especially if you do so frequently throughout the day, can be a significant source of distraction.
  • 电子邮件: 阅读和回复电子邮件,特别是如果你经常这样做,可以是一个重要的分散注意力的来源。

It’s important to recognise that distractions are a natural part of life, and eliminating them completely isn’t always possible or desirable. Managing distractions and finding ways to stay focused, on the other hand, can help you improve your productivity and reach your goals.

认识到分心是生活中很自然的一部分是很重要的,并且完全消除它们并不总是可能的或者可取的。另一方面,管理分心事物和找到保持专注的方法可以帮助你提高效率和达到目标。

Why Do We Get Distracted So Easily?

为什么我们这么容易分心?

There are several reasons why we may become easily distracted:

我们容易分心的原因有以下几点:

1. Our Brains Are Hardwired to Be Distracted

1. 我们的大脑天生就容易分心

In order to learn and adapt to our environment, our brains are made to actively seek out new information and stimuli. This is a critical component of human cognition.

为了学习和适应我们的环境,我们的大脑被迫积极地寻找新的信息和刺激。这是人类认知的重要组成部分。

According to the Neuro research on humans and macaque monkeys,[3] rather than functioning continuously, our capacity for concentration is built to function in short bursts. We are distracted in between those bursts of attention. The brain pauses and scans the environment during those periods of distraction to see if there is anything outside the main focus of attention that might be more significant. If not, it will refocus on what you were doing.

根据对人类和猕猴的神经系统研究,我们的注意力不是持续地运作,而是建立在短时间的爆发上。我们在这些注意力的爆发中分心了。在这些分心期间,大脑会暂停并扫描周围的环境,看看除了主要注意力集中点之外,是否还有其他更重要的东西。如果没有,它将重新关注你在做什么。

This human instinct, however, can cause us to become easily distracted. For instance, when we are engaged in a task and hear a loud noise or see something intriguing, our brains may automatically switch our attention to the new stimulus. This can be especially difficult in today’s world, where so many sources of information and entertainment compete for our attention.

然而,这种人类本能会使我们容易分心。例如,当我们在从事一项任务,听到一个巨大的噪音或看到一些有趣的东西,我们的大脑可能会自动转换我们的注意力到新的刺激。在当今世界,这可能尤其困难,因为如此多的信息和娱乐来源争相吸引我们的注意力。

2. We Live in a World Full of Distractions

2. 我们生活在一个充满干扰的世界

There are now more informational and entertainment resources than ever before available to us thanks to the spread of technology and the internet. This is both a blessing and a curse because it means that we have easy access to a variety of tools and pursuits that can aid in our education and development. But with so many options vying for our attention, it can also be challenging to remain concentrated on a single task.

由于技术和互联网的普及,我们现在可以获得的信息和娱乐资源比以往任何时候都多。这既是福也是祸,因为这意味着我们可以很容易地获得各种工具和追求,可以帮助我们的教育和发展。但是,有如此多的选择争夺我们的注意力,保持专注于一个单一的任务也可能是具有挑战性的。

A study found that different parts of our brain focus on the environment in various ways, and that the type of external stimulus even affects the frequency at which our brain waves pulse:[4]

一项研究发现,我们大脑的不同部分以不同的方式关注环境,外部刺激的类型甚至会影响我们脑电波脉冲的频率

“Neural activity goes up and down in a regular periodic way, with everything vibrating together. It is faster for automatic stimuli and slower for things we choose to pay attention to.”

“神经活动以有规律的周期性方式上下波动,所有东西都在一起振动。对于自动刺激而言,速度更快,对于我们选择关注的事物而言,速度更慢。”

Do You Feel Like You Don’t Have Enough Time?

你觉得你没有足够的时间吗?

Nearly 50% of Americans report feeling they “don’t have enough time these days.” Yet despite constantly feeling like there’s not enough time in the day, many continue to work long hours, sacrificing valuable time with friends and family in the hopes of finally catching up on their busy schedules…

将近50% 的美国人报告说他们觉得“最近没有足够的时间”然而,尽管经常感觉一天中没有足够的时间,许多人还是继续长时间工作,牺牲宝贵的时间与朋友和家人在一起,希望最终赶上他们繁忙的日程表..。


The truth is you have only 4,000 weeks in life, and have probably spent half of it already!

Read this FREE book summary and learn how to stop wasting more time and even regain time!

事实上,你一生只有4000个星期,而且可能已经度过了一半!阅读这个免费的书摘要,学习如何停止浪费更多的时间,甚至恢复时间!

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This means that when we are surrounded by distractions, it is more difficult for us to focus on what we need to focus on.

这意味着当我们被分心的事物包围时,我们很难专注于我们需要关注的事物。

As an illustration, you might be tempted to check a notification on your phone while working on a project if you get one. It may be more difficult to get back into the flow of your work after being pulled away by this minor interruption. Similar to this, you might find yourself drawn to click on a news headline or social media post while working on a task if it catches your attention.

作为一个例子,如果您得到了一个通知,那么您可能会试图在处理项目时检查手机上的通知。在被这个小小的中断拖走之后,回到工作流程中可能会更加困难。类似的,你可能会发现自己在工作时点击新闻标题或社交媒体帖子,如果它吸引了你的注意力。

3. We Have a Short Attention Span

我们的注意力时间很短

According to a 2010 Harvard study, the average person’s mind wanders 47% of the time, which means that you’re thinking about something else almost half the time you’re doing one thing.[5]

根据2010年哈佛大学的一项研究,平均每个人有47% 的时间会走神,这意味着你几乎有一半的时间在思考其他事情。[5]

Humans have a short attention span, so it’s normal for our attention to start to stray after a while. This is especially true if we are required to work without any breaks on a single task for an extended period of time.

人类的注意力持续时间很短,所以我们的注意力在一段时间后开始偏离是很正常的。如果我们被要求在一个任务上长时间不间断地工作,这一点尤其正确。

For instance, if you are working on a task that demands a lot of concentration and you don’t take any breaks, you might find that after some time you are easily distracted. This may be brought on by a number of things, such as weariness, boredom, or merely the need for a change of scenery.

例如,如果你正在从事一项需要高度集中注意力的工作,而且你没有休息,你可能会发现一段时间后你很容易分心。这可能是由一些事情引起的,比如疲倦,无聊,或者仅仅是需要改变一下环境。

4. Most Of Us Have Poor Time Management Skills

我们大多数人的时间管理能力都很差

Poor time management skills can lead to a lack of focus and productivity in several ways:

糟糕的时间管理技巧可以在几个方面导致注意力和生产力的缺乏:

  • Lack of clear priorities and goals: Without clear priorities and goals for your work, it can be challenging to maintain focus and avoid getting distracted by less important tasks.
  • 缺乏明确的优先级和目标: 如果你的工作没有明确的优先级和目标,保持注意力集中和避免被不那么重要的任务分散注意力是很有挑战性的。
  • Failing to allocate time effectively: Without a clear plan for how to divide up your time and resources, you may find yourself switching between tasks or getting stuck on less important ones.
  • 不能有效地分配时间: 没有一个明确的计划如何分配你的时间和资源,你可能会发现自己在不同的任务之间切换,或陷入不太重要的任务。
  • Procrastination: Procrastination is a major source of distraction because it keeps you from your work and makes it more challenging to get back to it.
  • 拖延: 拖延是分散注意力的主要来源,因为它让你远离工作,让你回到工作中更具挑战性。

We can become easily distracted for a variety of reasons, all of which can be present at the same time. But we can sharpen our focus and increase productivity by identifying the sources of distraction and creating management strategies for them.

我们很容易因为各种各样的原因而分心,所有这些原因都可能同时出现。但是我们可以通过识别分散注意力的源头并为它们制定管理策略来提高我们的注意力和生产力。

The 2 Types of Distractions

分心的两种类型

In order to successfully overcome distractions, we must first understand where distractions often come from. There are two kinds of distractions:

为了成功地克服干扰,我们必须首先了解干扰经常来自哪里。有两种干扰:

External Distraction

外部干扰

External distractions are those that come from outside of ourselves. Noise, interruptions, and other stimuli that pull us away from the task at hand are a few examples of external distractions.

外部干扰来自于我们自身之外。噪音、干扰和其他使我们远离手头任务的刺激是一些外部干扰的例子。

External distractions include visual triggers, social interactions, sound, and technology. A few of these are:

外部干扰包括视觉触发、社交互动、声音和技术:

  • Phone calls
  • 电话
  • Text messages
  • 短信
  • Emails
  • 电子邮件
  • Notifications on the phone
  • 电话通知
  • Social media
  • 社交媒体
  • Movement
  • 有动静
  • Conversations
  • 谈话
  • Noise
  • 噪音
  • Music
  • 音乐
  • Coworkers
  • 同事
  • Family
  • 家人
  • Pets
  • 宠物

Quick Action Item

快速行动项目

  • The quickest way to eliminate external distractions is to remove yourself from obvious distractions when you need to focus.
  • 消除外部干扰的最快方法是在你需要集中注意力的时候把自己从明显的干扰中移除。
  • For example, muting phone notifications, wearing noise-canceling headphones, closing the office door, blocking your schedule to prevent coworkers from interrupting you, and informing your family ahead of time that you will need to focus.
  • 例如,静音电话通知,戴上消除噪音的耳机,关上办公室的门,阻止你的日程安排以防止同事打扰你,提前告诉你的家人你需要集中精力。

Internal Distraction

内部干扰

Internal distractions are the root of our distraction. They are distractions that originate within us rather than from outside sources. They are your own thoughts and emotions such as worries about important obligations or enjoyable activities you’d rather be doing; and negative feelings you have regarding the project you are working on.

内在的干扰是我们分心的根源。它们是源于我们自身而不是外界的干扰。它们是你自己的想法和情绪,比如担心重要的义务或者你宁愿做的有趣的活动,以及对你正在做的项目有负面的感觉。

Typical internal distractions include the following:

典型的内部干扰包括:

  • Negative Thoughts: Worry, anxiety, or frustration are all examples of negative thoughts or emotions that can be distracting and make it difficult to concentrate.
  • 消极思想: 担心、焦虑或沮丧都是消极思想或情绪的例子,它们会分散注意力,使人难以集中精力。
  • Impulses: Impulses or desires, such as the need to check our phones or take a break, can divert us from our work.
  • 冲动: 冲动或欲望,如需要检查我们的手机或休息,可以转移我们从我们的工作。
  • Daydreaming: It can be difficult to focus when our thoughts start to stray and we begin to consider matters unrelated to the task at hand.
  • 白日梦: 当我们的思绪开始游离,我们开始考虑与手头任务无关的事情时,我们很难集中注意力。

Internal distractions are linked to our natural instinct to avoid discomfort. We, as humans, are motivated by freedom from discomfort rather than punishment and reward. When we are in physical or mental distress, we naturally seek ways to alleviate it.

内部干扰与我们避免不适的本能有关。作为人类,我们的动机是免于不适,而不是惩罚和奖励。当我们处于身体或精神上的痛苦时,我们自然会想办法减轻它。

These discomforts and escapes can take many forms, such as:

这些不适和逃避可以采取多种形式,例如:

  • The reality of marriage problems and the escape provided by video games
  • 婚姻问题的现实与电子游戏提供的逃避
  • The reality of work stress and Netflix binges as the escape
  • 现实的工作压力和 Netflix 狂欢作为逃避
  • The reality of a difficult task and the escape of doing house chores when you work from home
  • 现实的困难任务和逃避做家务时,你在家工作
  • The reality of tough life and the escape of social media scrolling
  • 生活艰难的现实和社交媒体滚动的逃避

As a result, these escapes become our distractions.

结果,这些逃避变成了我们的干扰。

Quick Action Item

快速行动项目

  • There is usually a trigger that causes you to switch to a distraction activity. Determine the trigger and how you feel at the time.
  • 通常会有一个触发因素导致你转向分散注意力的活动。确定触发器和你当时的感觉。
  • Instead of allowing your emotions to control your actions, sit with them for 5 minutes and avoid getting caught up in the wrong activity during that time.
  • 与其让你的情绪控制你的行为,不如和他们坐在一起5分钟,在这段时间里避免陷入错误的行为。
  • Then start breaking down the challenge into smaller tasks that you can tackle right away.
  • 然后开始把挑战分解成你可以马上处理的小任务。

The Cost of Distraction

分心的代价

Distractions are the number one killer of productivity. A person is distracted every 11 minutes on average, and it takes at least 25 minutes to regain optimal focus. That means you’re wasting six out of every eight hours of your day to distractions.

分心是工作效率的头号杀手。一个人平均每11分钟分心一次,至少需要25分钟才能重新获得最佳注意力。这意味着你每八个小时就有六个小时浪费在分心上。

Here are some more startling statistics:

下面是一些更令人吃惊的统计数据:

  • On a personal level, distractions have an impact on our performance:在个人层面上,分心会对我们的表现产生影响:[6]
    • 54% aren’t performing as well as they are supposed to;
    • 54% 的人没有表现得像他们应该表现的那样好;
    • 50% are significantly less productive;
    • 50% 的人生产力明显较低;
    • 20% are unable to reach their full potential or advance in their careers.
    • 20% 的人无法充分发挥自己的潜力或在职业生涯中取得进步。
  • On an organizational level, distractions cause company loss:在组织层面上,分心会导致公司亏损:[7]
    • 45% reported compromised quality of work
    • 45% 的人认为工作质量受到了影响
    • 30% reported lower morale as a result of other employees having to pick up the slack
    • 30% 的受访者表示,由于其他员工不得不替他们收拾烂摊子,导致他们士气低落
    • 25% reported a negative impact of boss/employee relationship
    • 25% 的受访者表示,老板和员工之间的关系对他们产生了负面影响
    • 24% reported missed deadlines
    • 24% 的人报告错过了截止日期
    • 21% reported a revenue loss
    • 21% 报告收入损失

Distractions can significantly reduce productivity, efficiency, and even safety. The cost of distraction, for instance, can be potential harm or even death when operating machinery or while driving a car.

分心会显著降低生产力、效率甚至安全。例如,分散注意力的代价可能是在操作机器或驾驶汽车时造成潜在的伤害甚至死亡。

Furthermore, distractions can contribute to a less fulfilling life. Since distractions make it difficult to stay focused on the things that are most important to you, you may find yourself wasting time on tasks or activities that do not contribute to your long-term goals or overall well-being.

此外,分心会导致生活不那么充实。因为分心会让你很难把注意力集中在对你来说最重要的事情上,你可能会发现自己把时间浪费在那些对你的长期目标或整体健康没有帮助的任务或活动上。

For example, you could spend hours scrolling through social media or engaging in other activities that are enjoyable in the moment but have no long-term value. On the contrary, focusing on jobs and pursuits that are worthwhile and advance your goals and general well-being can improve your life.

例如,你可以花上几个小时浏览社交媒体,或者参与其他一些当下令人愉快但没有长期价值的活动。相反,专注于有价值的工作和追求,推进你的目标和总体幸福感,可以改善你的生活。

Quick reflection:

快速反思:

  • Consider how many hours of time and energy you waste each day.
  • 想想你每天浪费了多少时间和精力。
  • Now multiply those hours by the number of weeks and months.
  • 现在把这些时间乘以周数和月数。
  • Consider where you spend the majority of your time.
  • 考虑一下你大部分时间都在哪里度过。

How to Overcome Distractions

如何克服分心

You cannot control every distraction; some distractions are truly urgent. Sometimes you do have to take care of unexpected things but 90% of them aren’t really that urgent or important.

你不能控制每一个干扰; 有些干扰是真正紧急的。有时候你确实需要处理一些意想不到的事情,但是90% 的事情并不是那么紧急或重要。

Most people choose to be distracted subconsciously and allow the distraction to take them away from what they’re trying to focus on.

大多数人在潜意识里选择分心,让分心把他们从他们试图专注的事情上带走。

That’s right, you can choose to be distracted. That means you have control over distractions.

没错,你可以选择分心,这意味着你可以控制分心。

Distractions are a reflection of an internal conflict within you. They are a reflection of something your mind is still debating. Things tempt you away from it and compete for your attention because your mind hasn’t fully committed.

分心是你内心冲突的反映。它们反映了你的思想仍在争论的问题。事情诱惑你远离它,争夺你的注意力,因为你的思想还没有完全投入。

I’ll give you an example:

我给你举个例子:

Consider the last time you needed to pee urgently… when you were completely focused on finding the bathroom. I’m sure those urgent emails and messages could wait. In fact, you were probably so focused on it that it was difficult to divert your attention away from it.

想想上次你急着尿尿的时候… … 当你全神贯注于找厕所的时候。我相信那些紧急邮件和短信可以等等。事实上,你可能是如此专注于它,以至于很难将你的注意力从它身上转移开。

What is the deciding factor? There was no doubt about it. Your mind, your body —- were completely dedicated to answering nature’s call.

决定因素是什么?毫无疑问。你的思想,你的身体完全致力于回应大自然的召唤。

However, this was a decision made by your subconscious mind. Consider bringing this decision to the forefront on a daily basis and proactively activating this type of focus.

然而,这是你的潜意识做出的决定。考虑每天把这个决定放在首位,并积极主动地激活这种关注。

The real key is how to use the distraction to reach into your mind so you can commit to a decision easily without a doubt. In short, use each distraction to strengthen your focus.

真正的关键是如何利用这种分散注意力的方式进入你的大脑,这样你就可以毫无疑问地轻松做出决定。简而言之,利用每一次分心来加强你的注意力。

To learn more, check out my focus-boosting guide: How to Focus And Stay Sharp (A Comprehensive Guide)

要了解更多,请参考我的提高注意力指南: 如何集中注意力并保持敏锐(综合指南)

Conclusion

结论

We can be easily distracted for a variety of causes, and each person will have different reasons why they are distracted. The root cause of all distractions, however, is within us, which includes negative thoughts and mental discomforts that cause us to want to escape reality.

我们很容易因为各种各样的原因而分心,而且每个人分心的原因各不相同。然而,所有分心的根源都在我们自己身上,包括消极的想法和精神上的不适,这些都让我们想要逃避现实。

Distractions can have a significant impact not only on productivity but also on our life fulfilment by making it difficult to focus on tasks and goals that are truly important to us.

分心不仅会对生产力产生重大影响,而且还会使我们难以专注于对我们真正重要的任务和目标,从而影响我们的生活满足感。

To overcome distractions and find focus, you must first identify the sources of your distractions and then take steps to strengthen your focus.

为了克服分心和找到注意力,你必须首先找出分心的来源,然后采取措施来加强你的注意力。

Featured photo credit: Nubelson Fernandes via unsplash.com

图片来源: Nubelson Fernandes via unsplash.com

原文链接:https://nownexts.com/distraction-the-biggest-enemy-of-productivity.html,转载请注明出处。
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2024-04-25 05:47:38
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